Science, Technology & Public Policy

Archive

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Research Article |

Effects of Smoking on Body Mass Index among University Students in Bangladesh

Both smoking and being overweight are two major global public health issues nowadays that can raise the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disorders and that can lead to death. This study aims to determine the association between smoking and body mass index (BMI) among university students in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional research design is adopted; the target population of the study is university students including all religions and races. With the aid of a non-probability convenience sampling technique, a total of 910 university students participated in the study. Descriptive statistics and parametric statistical analyses were used to analyze the data collected from the respondents. Among the respondents, smokers and non-smokers represented 496 (54.5%) and 414 (45.5%) respectively. Among the 496 smokers of respondents, their smoking intensity score showed 70.6% of respondents were low dependent on nicotine and 29.4% were high dependent on nicotine. There was a significant difference between subjects who smoked cigarettes and those who did not smoke cigarettes regarding gender, age, study group, current living status, socio-economic class, and religion (p < 0.05). The present study showed a significant association between high smoking intensity with overweight (p < 0.05). According to the study, smoking cigarettes over an extended period is associated with a lower BMI and vice versa. We find that 54.5% of the university students in our sample were smokers, and we think that if awareness programs are introduced or increased in universities with regular activities of universities the percentage of smoking is decreased. When someone managing their body weight, smoking status and quitting techniques should also be taken into consideration.

Smoking, BMI, Overweight, University Students, Bangladesh

APA Style

Akter, T., Tabassum, M., Parvej, M. I. (2024). Effects of Smoking on Body Mass Index among University Students in Bangladesh. Science, Technology & Public Policy, 8(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.11648/stpp.20240801.11

ACS Style

Akter, T.; Tabassum, M.; Parvej, M. I. Effects of Smoking on Body Mass Index among University Students in Bangladesh. Sci. Technol. Public Policy 2024, 8(1), 1-8. doi: 10.11648/stpp.20240801.11

AMA Style

Akter T, Tabassum M, Parvej MI. Effects of Smoking on Body Mass Index among University Students in Bangladesh. Sci Technol Public Policy. 2024;8(1):1-8. doi: 10.11648/stpp.20240801.11

Copyright © 2024 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. P. Sultana, S. Akter, M. Rahman, and M. Alam, "Prevalence and predictors of current tobacco smoking in Bangladesh," J Biostat Biometric App, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 102, 2015.
2. J. A. Khan, Amir Humza Sohail, A. M., & Arif Maan, M. A., "Tobacco control laws in Pakistan and their implementation: A pilot study in Karachi.," Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 875 - 879, 2016.
3. S. R. N. P. M. S. Pradhan, A. Ghimire, S. B. Singh, and P. K. Pokharel, "Tobacco use and associated factors among adolescent students in Dharan, Eastern Nepal: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey," BMJ Open, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 1-7, 2013, doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002123.
4. S. H. S. Hossain, F. Ahmed, R. Islam, T. Sikder, and A. Rahman, "Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Factors Associated with the Initiation of Smoking among University Students in Dhaka, Bangladesh,," Cent. Asian J. Glob. Heal, vol. 6, no. 1, 2017, doi: 10.5195/cajgh.2017.244.
5. R. Sturm, "The effects of obesity, smoking, and drinking on medical problems and costs," Health affairs, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 245-253, 2002.
6. P. Chhabra and S. K. Chhabra, "Effect of smoking on body mass index: a community-based study," Natl J Community Med, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 325-30, 2011.
7. W. D. Travis, J. Lubin, L. Ries, and S. Devesa, "United States lung carcinoma incidence trends: declining for most histologic types among males, increasing among females," Cancer: Interdisciplinary International Journal of the American Cancer Society, vol. 77, no. 12, pp. 2464-2470, 1996.
8. D. R. Shopland, H. J. Eyre, and T. F. Peachacek, "Smoking-attributable cancer mortality in 1991: is lung cancer now the leading cause of death among smokers in the United States?," JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 83, no. 16, pp. 1142-1148, 1991.
9. R. Peto, J. Boreham, A. D. Lopez, M. Thun, and C. Heath, "Mortality from tobacco in developed countries: indirect estimation from national vital statistics," The Lancet, vol. 339, no. 8804, pp. 1268-1278, 1992.
10. A. W. Bergen and N. Caporaso, "Cigarette smoking," Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 91, no. 16, pp. 1365-1375, 1999.
11. G. L. Day et al., "Racial differences in risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer: alcohol, tobacco, and other determinants," JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 85, no. 6, pp. 465-473, 1993.
12. M. D. Gammon et al., "Tobacco, alcohol, and socioeconomic status and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia," Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 89, no. 17, pp. 1277-1284, 1997.
13. M. Sneve and R. Jorde, "Cross-sectional study on the relationship between body mass index and smoking, and longitudinal changes in body mass index in relation to change in smoking status: The Tromsø Study," Scandinavian journal of public health, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 397-407, 2008.
14. A. Molarius, J. C. Seidell, K. Kuulasmaa, A. J. Dobson, and S. Sans, "Smoking and relative body weight: an international perspective from the WHO MONICA Project," Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 252-260, 1997.
15. S. Banik and M. Rahman, "Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Bangladesh: a systematic review of the literature," Current obesity reports, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 247-253, 2018.
16. W. H. O. (WHO). Obesity and overweight [Online] Available: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight
17. R. Banik, S. Naher, S. Pervez, and M. M. Hossain, "Fast food consumption and obesity among urban college going adolescents in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study," Obesity Medicine, vol. 17, p. 100161, 2020.
18. T. Bulbul and M. Hoque, "Prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight in Bangladesh: findings from a countrywide epidemiological study," BMC pediatrics, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1-8, 2014.
19. S. Rahman, M. T. Islam, and D. S. Alam, "Obesity and overweight in Bangladeshi children and adolescents: a scoping review," BMC public health, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1-8, 2014.
20. S. Goon, M. S. Bipasha, and M. S. Islam, "Fast food consumption and obesity risk among university students of Bangladesh," European Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 99-104, 2014.
21. D. E. Camp, R. C. Klesges, and G. Relyea, "The relationship between body weight concerns and adolescent smoking," Health psychology, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 24, 1993.
22. E. Kvaavik, H. E. Meyer, and A. Tverdal, "Food habits, physical activity and body mass index in relation to smoking status in 40–42 year old Norwegian women and men," Preventive medicine, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 1-5, 2004.
23. M. Lahti-Koski, P. Pietinen, M. Heliövaara, and E. Vartiainen, "Associations of body mass index and obesity with physical activity, food choices, alcohol intake, and smoking in the 1982–1997 FINRISK Studies," The American journal of clinical nutrition, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 809-817, 2002.
24. T. V. Cooper, R. C. Klesges, L. A. Robinson, and S. M. Zbikowski, "A prospective evaluation of the relationships between smoking dosage and body mass index in an adolescent, biracial cohort," Addictive behaviors, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 501-512, 2003.
25. S. A. Shipa, M. M. Rana, M. F. Miah, M. J. Alam, and M. G. R. Mahmud, "Effect of intensity of cigarette smoking on Leukocytes among adult men and women smokers in Bangladesh," Asia Pacific Journal of Medical Toxicology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 12-17, 2017.
26. T. F. Heatherton, L. T. Kozlowski, R. C. Frecker, and K. O. Fagerstrom, "The Fagerström test for nicotine dependence: a revision of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire," British journal of addiction, vol. 86, no. 9, pp. 1119-1127, 1991.
27. J.-F. Etter and T. Perneger, "Measurement of self reported active exposure to cigarette smoke," Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 674-680, 2001.
28. C. S. Pomerleau, S. M. Carton, M. L. Lutzke, K. A. Flessland, and O. F. Pomerleau, "Reliability of the Fagerstrom tolerance questionnaire and the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence," Addictive behaviors, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 33-39, 1994.
29. W. H. O. (WHO). ""Body mass index - BMI."." https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/disease-prevention/nutrition/a-healthy-lifestyle/body-mass-index-bmi (accessed November 09, 2021.
30. E. Rasky, W.-J. Stronegger, and W. Freidl, "The relationship between body weight and patterns of smoking in women and men," International journal of epidemiology, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1208-1212, 1996.
31. D. R. Jacobs Jr and S. Gottenborg, "Smoking and weight: the Minnesota Lipid Research Clinic," American Journal of Public Health, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 391-396, 1981.
32. M. Jacobs, "Adolescent smoking: The relationship between cigarette consumption and BMI," Addictive behaviors reports, vol. 9, p. 100153, 2019.
33. D. Albanes, D. Y. Jones, M. S. Micozzi, and M. E. Mattson, "Associations between smoking and body weight in the US population: analysis of NHANES II," American journal of public health, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 439-444, 1987.
34. L. d. O. F. Gasperin, M. Neuberger, A. Tichy, and H. Moshammer, "Cross-sectional association between cigarette smoking and abdominal obesity among Austrian bank employees," BMJ open, vol. 4, no. 7, p. e004899, 2014.
35. J. Baumert et al., "Determinants of heavy cigarette smoking: are there differences in men and women? Results from the population-based MONICA/KORA Augsburg surveys," Nicotine & tobacco research, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1220-1227, 2010.
36. H. S. Oh and W. S. Seo, "The compound relationship of smoking and alcohol consumption with obesity," Yonsei medical journal, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 480-487, 2001.
37. C. Filozof, M. Fernandez Pinilla, and A. Fernández-Cruz, "Smoking cessation and weight gain," Obesity reviews, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 95-103, 2004.
38. K. Patel et al., "Relationship between smoking and obesity among women," American journal of health behavior, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 627-636, 2011.
39. M. M. Bassiony, "Smoking in Saudi Arabia," Saudi Med J, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 876-81, 2009.
40. S. ALNohair, "Obesity in gulf countries," International journal of health sciences, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 79, 2014.